The idea for Canada was mostly about a direct route east, although I had never been in that part of Ontario and I was curious. I was also curious about Sudbury. This region is known in mining and reclamation circles, historically, as one of the most locally polluted and damaged ecosystems in North America. The discovery of nickel and copper ores in the late 1800s put the place on the map, along with the railroad and local timber wealth. A combination of timber clear cutting, nickel sulfide mining and coke production devastated the water and vegetation of the local area. Things are a bit different now. Taller smokestacks are dispersing the acidic mining pollutants over a greater region, the forest ecosystem is recovering, and the city is quite prosperous and beautiful.CC20 Composite Canada

The Canadian Horseshoe Falls at Niagra are always impressive, despite the huge number of tourists this time of year and the long lines at the border crossing. Otherwise, because of 400 miles of bad Canadian roads and a forgettable experience traversing the Toronto/Buffalo NY metropolis, this will be one of the least memorable legs of my journey.